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examining trust

September 7, 2014

oldphoto Youth Out Loud

An excess of sequins generated the retinal burn of Famous Sharron’s (the second r is silent) frock last night centre stage at the finals of the 2014 Youth Out Loud speaking competition.

Our college representative, student JC, came second in his division. Improvements/ progress noted in JC’s journey:

  • Stood tall without fidgeting
  • memorised palm cards
  • learnt from his big sister’s coaching efforts at home, and
  • spoke eloquently in the 2 minute impromptu on the topic

What human quality does the world need more of?

JC inspired about hope. Others addressed happiness and trust. Interesting choices for 15 year olds.


CC Image Source

Gives me another lens with which to filter my critical analysis of trust in the workplace as I evaluate education policy trends for uni.

Here’s my assignment outline:

PURPOSE: This paper will consider enactment of the Australian Teacher Performance and Development Framework policy at the micro level within the broader global context of focus on quality teaching as a means to achieve improved student achievement through neoliberal practices including audit culture and hyper-accountability. Tensions exist between notions of quality in education as measured by the OECD on PISA tests or by ACARA in NAPLAN since these are scales of, respectively, international and national achievement based on ideologies of a competitive market economy running counter to moral purpose/ investment in public good. Erosion of teacher professionalism and trust are undesirable outcomes of how ideology and policy currently play out in schools.

Influences – global to local contexts:

  • 1980s neoliberalism and educational reform pandemic
  • from bureaucracy to managerialism
  • 21st century skills
  • Globalisation & the knowledge society
  • Mediatisation
  • Federalism
  • Welfare state -> individualism
  • Tensions between autonomy and recentralization/ devolution – IPS eg online budget/ funding model
Post-war – doing more with less – Rethinking educational reform

(Goldspink, 2007)

Hyper accountability – Pendulum (Barker, 2010) & Taking context seriously (Braun et al 2011)

The neoliberal cascade& education (Connell, 2013)

– Policy as numbers  (Lingard, 2011)

Bottery, 2006

Marginson, 2010

– Perspectives on Globalisation (Rizvi & Lingard, 2010)

– Big Policies/ Small World (Ball, 1998)

– Education, Change & Society (Connell et al, 2010)

Policy text production: Devolution/ steerage from afar

  • performance management
  • peer review
  • observations
  • evaluations
  • testing regimes
  • published school results perceived as league tables
  • moderated assessments
  • reporting processes
  • teacher quality measured by and against

AITSL standards (Vidovich, 2014).

– Raising the Stakes (Klenowski, 2012)

– Teacher professional identity (Sachs, 2001)

Restructuring – from government to governance (Lingard, 2011, p. 366)


Barber & Mourshed – How the World’s Most Improved School Systems keep getting better

Melbourne Declaration

– How Good? Quality/ Equity (McGaw, 2008)

ACARA – Australian Curriculum; competitive – global knowledge society

What is quality teaching? Problematic

– Governing Education through data (Ozga, 2009)

AITSL insights: Evaluation of the Implementation of the Australian Professional Standards for Teachers>>

  • Compliance-based, top-down, surveillance approach to the implementation process
    – Misinterpretation of the Standards
    – Difficulty in ensuring and encouraging teachers to engage with the Standards in the context of other significant national reforms such as the Australian Curriculum (AITSL, 2014, p. 10).

– The teacher’s soul and the terrors of performativity (Ball, 2003)


  • Deprivatised practice vs surveillance
  • Self-reflection vs assessment against standards
  • Enactment vs implementation
  • Performance vs compliance

Argyris & Schon, 1974

How this policy ensemble plays out in an IPS – micro level

AITSL teacher standards

Performance & Development policy vs review practices

Forced compliance & coercion

Audit culture – Audit explosion (Power, 2011)

Federalism, public education & the public good (Reid, 2012)

Outcomes – wider & longer term issues of equity & social justice:

  • Neoliberalism = audit culture + deprofessionalisation
  • Trust erodes/ suspicion & mistrust permeate
  • Low morale
  • Attrition
  • Pervasive fear

Challenge of leading with a moral purpose –

Rethinking Schools & School Leadership (Davies, 2002)


Balance required!

Global trends in educational reform and the struggle for the soul of the teacher (Ball, 1999)

– Simple Solutions to complex problems (Mockler, 2014) Intelligent accountability


Ball – Teacher Professionalism/ authenticity (Simons et al 2009)

– The Leadership of Learning Communities in a Culture of Unhappiness (Bottery, 2010)

– Trust in Organisations (Kramer & Tyler, 1996)

Sitkin, S.B. & Stickel, D. (1996). The road to hell: The dynamics of distrust in an era of quality. In Kramer, R.M. & Tyler, T.R. (Eds). Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

My reference list is still an incomplete work-in-progress owing to

  • rushing to a study retreat in New Norcia with Stage 3 English students this weekend
  • difficulty saving the table above in WordPress
  • losing track of updates – frustration – until a partial success retrieved citations from auto-save….


Selected references

AITSL. (2012). Australian teacher performance and development framework. Retrieved June 12, 2014

AITSL. (2014). Evaluation of the implementation of the Australian professional standards for teachers: Interim report. The University of Melbourne: Graduate School of Education. Retrieved September 6, 2014

Argyris, C. & Schon, D.A. (1974). Theory in practice: Increasing professional effectiveness. San Francisco: Jossey –Bass Publishers.

Bottery, M. (2003). The management and mismanagement of trust. Educational Management Administration & Leadership 31(3). Retrieved July 21, 2004 from

Bottery, M. (2006). Education and globalization: redefining the role of the educational professional. In Educational Review 58(1), pp. 95-113.

Goldspink, C. (2007). Rethinking educational reform: A loosely coupled and complex systems perspective. In Educational Management Administration & Leadership35(1), pp. 27-50.

Jensen, B. & Reichl, J. (2012). Implementing a performance and development framework. Grattan Institute. Retrieved August 24, 2014

Lingard, B. (2011). Policy as numbers: ac/counting for educational research. In Australian Educational Research 38(4), pp. 355-382.

McGaw, B. (2008). How good is Australian school education? In Marginson, S. & James, R. Education, science and public policy: Ideas for an education revolution. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press, pp. 53-77.

Mockler, N. (2014). Simple solutions to complex problems: Moral panic and the fluid shift from ‘equity’ to ‘quality’ in education. In British Educational Research Association 2(1), pp. 2-29.

Sitkin, S.B. & Stickel, D. (1996). The road to hell: The dynamics of distrust in an era of quality. In Kramer, R.M. & Tyler, T.R. (Eds). Trust in organizations: Frontiers of theory and research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Vidovich, L. (2009). ‘You don’t fatten the pig by weighing it’: Contradictory tensions in the ‘policy pandemic’ of accountability infecting education. In Simons, M., Olssen, M. & Peters, M.A. (Eds.) Re-reading education policies: A handbook studying the policy agenda of the 21st century. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.

Vidovich, L. (2014). Education policy trends: Global to local (EDUC 5658) – Topic 9. UWA course materials.

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